UZBEKISTAN – UZBEKISTAN – O`ZBEKISTON

Centar glavnog grada-Central Tashkent

Centar glavnog grada-Central Tashkent

Gur-e Amir, Samarkand

Gur-e Amir, Samarkand

Ispred dzamije u Taskentu-In front of the Tashkent Mosque

Ispred dzamije u Taskentu-In front of the Tashkent Mosque

Madrasa of Ulugh Beg, Registan, Samarkand

Madrasa of Ulugh Beg, Registan, Samarkand

Mir-e 'Arab madrasa and Kalan minaret, Bukhara

Mir-e ‘Arab madrasa and Kalan minaret, Bukhara

Mir-e 'Arab madrasa, Bukhara

Mir-e ‘Arab madrasa, Bukhara

Mladenci u Hivi-Newlyweds in Khiva

Mladenci u Hivi-Newlyweds in Khiva

Na izletu u grad-On the trip to the city

Na izletu u grad-On the trip to the city

Ostaci Aralskog mora - The reminders of the Aral sea

Ostaci Aralskog mora – The reminders of the Aral sea

Ostaci Aralskog mora-The reminders of the Aral Sea

Ostaci Aralskog mora-The reminders of the Aral Sea

Pogled na pustinjski grad i tvrdjavu Hiva-A view of the desert city and the citadel of Khiva

Pogled na pustinjski grad i tvrdjavu Hiva-A view of the desert city and the citadel of Khiva

Registan-srce Centralne Azije i dinastije Timurida-Registan-the heart of Central Asia and Timurid dynasty

Registan-srce Centralne Azije i dinastije Timurida-Registan-the heart of Central Asia and Timurid dynasty

Skraceni minaret u Hivi-Short minaret in Khiva

Skraceni minaret u Hivi-Short minaret in Khiva

Tradicionalna igra narda-Narda, a traditional game

Tradicionalna igra narda-Narda, a traditional game

Tradicionalni restoran u Buhari-A traditional restaurant in Bukhara

Tradicionalni restoran u Buhari-A traditional restaurant in Bukhara

Tvrdjava u Buhari - Bukhara citadel

Tvrdjava u Buhari – Bukhara citadel

Tvrdjava u Buhari-Bukhara citadel

Tvrdjava u Buhari-Bukhara citadel

Velika dzamija u Buhari i Kalan minaret-The Great Mosque with the Kalan minaret, Bukhara

Velika dzamija u Buhari i Kalan minaret-The Great Mosque with the Kalan minaret, Bukhara

Zene u tradicionalnoj odeci isred dzamije u Buhari - Women in traditional clothes in front of the mosque in Bukhara

Zene u tradicionalnoj odeci isred dzamije u Buhari – Women in traditional clothes in front of the mosque in Bukhara

Osećam se kao da sam u nekom prethodnom životu već živeo u ovoj zemlji. Kao
da sam prolazio kroz Buharu i Samarkand u XII veku kao prodavac tepiha ili
začina, a, možda, i pesnik na dvoru amira Timura, harizmatičnog vladara ovih
predela, čija se teritorija protezala od Moskve do Indije. Njegov unuk je
stvorio Mogulsko carstvo, koje je zauzelo veću polovinu Azije, a, opet,
njegov unuk je sagradio maestralnu građevinu za sva  vremena, Tadž Mahal.
Amir Timur je zbog toga ovde više nego kralj, on je simbol moći ovog naroda
koja je tokom vekova izbledela, ali koja je ostala da lebdi među modroplavim
i tirkiznim zidovima džamija i medresa iz njegovog vremena. Bila je to moć
koja se teško može zamisliti i razumeti jer je bila ogromna i neograničena.
Amir Timur, međutim, nije bio samo jedan od sedmorice najmoćnijih vojskovođa
sveta, već i učeni čovek svog vremena, koji je na svom dvoru razvijao
astronomiju, književnost i nauku. Tu je samo posmatranjem i pomoću astrolaba
otkriveno dve hiljade novih zvezda, koje je mnogo kasnije zabeležio Galilej
i ostali evropski astronomi. U Buhari je tada živeo nadaleko poznati lekar
Ibn Sina, poznatiji kao Avicena, koji je napisao Medicinski kanon i postavio
osnove te nauke.
Buhara, Samarkand i pustinjska tvrđava Hiva plene svojom neobičnom lepotom,
koja se još jedino može videti u persijskoj arhitekturi tog vremena. Hiva je
grad muzej na otvorenom prostoru, veliko utvrđenje u kome su vladari
vekovima gradili džamije, medrese, palate i ogromne minarete, koji su imali
posebnu svrhu: da svojom veličinom pokažu moć, ali i lepotu, da se sa njih
osmatra teritorija, ali i za ritualno kažnjavanje osuđenih na smrt, bacanjem
sa vrha. Tako je stradao i arhitekta minareta koji je trebalo da bude
najveći, ali je ostao nedovršen i zato nazvan Kratki minaret ili
Kalta-Minor. Za utehu, lokalni vladar ili kan, otišao bi do balkona na kome
su ga čekale novodošle konkubine. Ako nije znao za koju da se odluči, bacio
bi jabuku ka njima, pa koja bi imala sreće da je uhvati, bila je njegova te
noći. Ti magični gradovi puni su takvih priča, što su i Priče iz hiljadu i
jedne noći. Stvarnost je sigurno bila drugačija za obične ljude, a
definitivno se promenila nastankom sovjetskog Uzbekistana posle Oktobarske
revolucije. Iako ih je carska Rusija mirno zauzela još polovinom XIX veka,
Uzbeci se nikada nisu potpuno navikli na rusku dominaciju, ali joj se nisu
mnogo ni protivili. Danas se čvrsta vlast veoma oseća u zemlji, ali zato je
sve mirno, uređeno, čisto i oslobođeno svakog kriminala. Nisam skoro boravio
u nekoj tako čistoj zemlji i sa tako prijatnim ljudima.
Na krajnjem severu šetam po pesku koji je nekada bio dno Aralskog jezera,
ili mora, zbog njegove slane vode. Oko mene je groblje brodskih olupina koje
nemo svedoče o trenucima kada su plovili po vodi. Vode, međutim, ovde više
nema i jezero je skoro nestalo za pola veka. U to vreme, da bi omogućili
navodnjavanje pustinje, Sovjeti su izgradili čitavu mrežu irigacionih
kanala, koji su vodu reke Amu Darja sproveli velikim delom u pustinju, tako
da je Aralsko jezero postepeno ostajalo bez vode. Uskoro ga uopšte neće biti
i, kažu, da mu nema spasa. Nestajale su tako dinastije, carevine se gubile,
vladari odlazili, pa zašto ne bi jedno jezero promenilo geografsku kartu? I
sve se to zbiva u uzbečkoj republici čudnog imena Karakalpakstan; ako bismo
to preveli sa turskog, to bi značilo Zemlja crnih kapa, kako su je nazvali
ruski istraživači u XIX veku kad su ugledali ljude sa crnim kapama koji su
nekada tamo živeli.
Aralsko more žrtvovano je radi zelenih žitnih polja, čitavi narodi za ideje,
ali grad Samarkand je izdržao sve žrtve iz prošlosti i za sva vremena ostao
simbol Orijenta.

Maj 2010.
_____________________________________________________

I feel like I had already lived in this country in a former life. Maybe I
passed through Bukhara and Samarkand in the 12th century as a carpet or
spice merchant, or maybe I was a poet at the court of Amir Timur, the
charismatic ruler of this region, whose empire stretched from Moscow to
India. His grandson created the Mughal Empire, conquering the better half of
Asia, whereas his grandson in turn, built the majestic Taj Mahal to stand in
eternity.
Because of all of that, Amir Timur is regarded as more than a king here, he
is the symbol of this nation’s power which has diminished over the
centuries, and yet it still lingers between the azure and turquoise walls of
the mosques and madrasahs from his time. It is very hard to imagine and
understand this kind of power because it was immense and limitless. However,
Amir Timur was not only one of the seven greatest warriors of all times, he
was also one of the most learned men of his time, cultivating the learning
of astronomy, literature and science at his court. Here, only through
observation and with the help of an astrolabe, two thousand new stars were
identified, documented much later by Galileo and other European astronomers.
The famous doctor Ibn Sina, better known as Avicenna lived in Bukhara at the
time; he wrote The Canon of Medicine and established the foundations of this
science.
Bukhara, Samarkand and the desert fortress of Khiva are fascinating in their
unusual beauty which can only be found in the Persian architecture from that
period. Khiva is a museum city in the open, a huge fortress within which
rulers have built through the centuries – mosques, madrasahs, palaces and
tall minarets, which had a special purpose, to personify power but also
beauty with their size, to be used as observation points, but also for the
ritual punishment by throwing those condemned to death from its top. That is
how the architect of the tallest minaret ended up – this was supposed to be
the biggest minaret but it remained unfinished and was thus called
Kalta-Minor, or the Short Minaret. In turn, a local ruler or Khan would seek
solace by going to the balcony where newly arrived concubines were waiting
for him. If he could not make up his mind as to which one to choose, he
would throw an apple to them, so whichever one was lucky to catch it, would
spend the night with him. These magical cities are full of such stories;
they are also the stories of The Arabian Nights. The reality was quite
different, for sure, for the ordinary people and it changed profoundly with
the establishment of the Soviet Uzbekistan after the October Revolution.
Even though they were conquered peacefully by the Russian Empire in the
mid-19th century, the Uzbeks never really accepted Russian domination, but
neither did they rebel against it. Today the strong grip of the state rule
is felt everywhere in the country, but that is why everything is peaceful,
orderly and clean and free of any crime. I cannot remember visiting a
country as clean as this one and with people as friendly as here.
In the far north of the country, I walk on the sand which used to be the
bottom of the Aral Lake, or the Aral Sea as it is called because of its
salty water. Around me is the cemetery of derelict ships standing as mute
witnesses to the time when they were used at sea. Yet, there is no water
here anymore and the lake all but disappeared in half a century. At the
time, in order to bring water to the desert, the Soviets built an entire
network of irrigation canals taking the large part of the water of Amu Darya
River to the desert, so that the Aral Lake was gradually left without water.
Soon it will disappear completely, it is said, there is no way of saving it.
Entire dynasties vanished, empires were lost and rulers departed, so why
wouldn’t one lake change the map? And all this is happening in an Uzbek
republic with a strange name – Karakalpakstan; if we translated this from
Turkish, it would mean The Land of the Black Caps, as it was called by the
Russian explorers in the 19th century when they saw people who lived there
wearing black caps.
The Aral Sea was sacrificed for green fields of wheat, entire nations were
sacrificed for ideas, but the city of Samarkand withstood all the past
sacrifices and remained a symbol of the Orient for all times.

May 2010

Leave a Reply