SEVERNA KOREJA – NORTH KOREA – 조선민주주의인민공화국

Fizickoj kulturi pridaje se veliki znacaj-Physical culture is given a lot of importance

Fizickoj kulturi pridaje se veliki znacaj-Physical culture is given a lot of importance

Grobnica kralja Kongmina i kraljice-The twin tomb of King Kongmin and his queen

Grobnica kralja Kongmina i kraljice-The twin tomb of King Kongmin and his queen

Jedan od mnogobrojnih mozaika-One of numerous mosaics

Jedan od mnogobrojnih mozaika-One of numerous mosaics

Mesto mirovnih pregovora u demilitarizovanoj zoni, Panmundzom-The venue of peace talks in the Demilitarized Zone of Panmunjom

Mesto mirovnih pregovora u demilitarizovanoj zoni, Panmundzom-The venue of peace talks in the Demilitarized Zone of Panmunjom

Metro u Pjongjangu-The Pyongyang metro

Metro u Pjongjangu-The Pyongyang metro

Mladenci ispred Koryo muzeja-Newly weds in front of the Koryo museum

Mladenci ispred Koryo muzeja-Newly weds in front of the Koryo museum

Mladenci na Trgu fontana-Newly weds on Fountain Square

Mladenci na Trgu fontana-Newly weds on Fountain Square

Muzej dinastije Koryo u Kesongu-The Koryo Folk Museum in Kaesong City

Muzej dinastije Koryo u Kesongu-The Koryo Folk Museum in Kaesong City

Poslednji potpis Velikog vodje-The last signature of the Great Leader

Poslednji potpis Velikog vodje-The last signature of the Great Leader

Pothong Gate

Pothong Gate

Pyongyang Circus

Pyongyang Circus

Spomenik osnivanju Radnicke partije-The Party Foundation Memorial

Spomenik osnivanju Radnicke partije-The Party Foundation Memorial

Spomenik ponovnom ujedinjenju dve Koreje-The Arch of Reunification

Spomenik ponovnom ujedinjenju dve Koreje-The Arch of Reunification

Spomenik Velikom vodji u Narodnoj biblioteci-The Monument of the Great Leader in Grand People's Study House

Spomenik Velikom vodji u Narodnoj biblioteci-The Monument of the Great Leader in Grand People’s Study House

Trijumfalna kapija-veca od pariske - The Triumphal Arch-bigger than the one in Paris

Trijumfalna kapija-veca od pariske – The Triumphal Arch-bigger than the one in Paris

Trijumfalna kapija-veca od pariske-The Triumphal Arch-bigger than the one in Paris

Trijumfalna kapija-veca od pariske-The Triumphal Arch-bigger than the one in Paris

Bronzani spomenik Kim Il Sungu u Kesongu-The bronze monument of Kim Il Sung in Kaesong City

Bronzani spomenik Kim Il Sungu u Kesongu-The bronze monument of Kim Il Sung in Kaesong City

Fizickoj kulturi pridaje se veliki znacaj - Physical culture is given a lot of importance

Fizickoj kulturi pridaje se veliki znacaj – Physical culture is given a lot of importance

Izgleda da svi svi svetski diktatori imaju svoj kraj, ali ovi severnokorejski, čini se, najduže traju i prenose se nasledno, kao kraljevi. Ipak, dok slušam o “američkom imperijalizmu” i herojskoj borbi ovog naroda da tome stane na put, razmišljam o tome kako ni mnogo većim igračima na svetskoj političkoj sceni to nije pošlo za rukom.
Ideologija, tehnologija i kultura, objašnjava mi lepa vodičkinja, tri su osnovna stuba socijalističkog napretka ove zemlje, koje je davno zacrtao najveći i najvoljeniji vođa Kim Il Sung, nepogrešivo ga sledio njegov sin, mladi veliki vođa Kim Džong Il, a potom njegov sin i najmlađi vođa Kim Džong Un.
Ovakav scenario deluje veoma tužno u situaciji opšteg siromaštva, pa i gladi, sa kojima se suočava ova zemlja. Ipak, ne mogu a da se ne prisetim čuvenih scena na malim ekranima sedamdesetih godina prošlog veka, koje su se odvijale tokom posete maršala Tita Severnoj Koreji. Na prepunom stadionu u glavnom gradu Pjongjangu dešavao se slet nesagledivih razmera, u kome su se na ogromnim tribinama smenjivale zastave, likovi, scene iz života, sastavljeni od hiljada učesnika sa raznobojnim maramama, čije su se boje smenjivale u zavisnosti od motiva. Bili smo fascinirani. Danas, posle četrdeset godina, kao da mi se vraćaju te scene dok radoznalo posmatram pionire koji masovno i organizovano vežbaju na otvorenim prostorima ovog grada, ili ostajem zadivljen veštinama Pjongjang cikrusa.
Vodili u me u demilitarizovanu zonu, poznati Panmundžon, koja razdvaja dve Koreje već šezdeset godina. Bili su iznenađeni činjenicom da sam tu već boravio, samo sa južne strane. Ja sam, s druge strane, bio iznenađen koliko su znali o meni i čak indiskretno me ispitivali o svemu što su još morali da saznaju i posle da prijave nadležnom komitetu.
“Kimilsungija je besmrtni cvet koji raste u srcima čovečanstva u eri nezavisnosti” naslov je samo jednog od hiljada propagandnih panfleta kojima ova zemlja obiluje i koji su skoro dovedeni do apsurda, a odnosi se na jednu vrstu orhideje koja je nazvana imenom Velikog vođe. Saznao sam i da novo računanje vremena ovde počinje godinom njegovog rođenja koja se naziva Juche, da je to preraslo u filozofski sistem novog čoveka ovih prostora u kome su Partija i vojska neprikosnoveni. Uskoro se slavi stogodišnjica njegovog rođenja ili Juche 100 i već je sve u tom znaku. O toj filozofiji govorio je, pošto je nasledio svog oca, mladi i perspektivni Kim Džong Il teoretskim propagandistima Partije 2. aprila 1974. godine (Juche 63).
U potpunom mraku gradskih ulica tiho promiču ljudske siluete. Automobila skoro da i nema na mnogim gradskim ulicama, već samo prastari bicikli i kamioni pretovareni poljoprivrednim plodovima na kojima su i ljudi ugrabili poneko mesto. Ponosno mi se priča da svako preduzeće ima svoju farmu iz koje se zaposleni prehranjuju. Podseća me na priče sa mojih prostora iz perioda posle Drugog svetskog rata.
Ogromni bronzani spomenici, mozaici i slike dvojice besmrtnih vođa, mamutske građevine, stadioni, pozorišta, cirkusi i prostori za rekreaciju radničke klase, omladine i pionira samo su deo apsurdnog idolopoklonstva kome je sve podređeno. Tu je i poneka palata, hram ili grobnica nekog od kraljeva velike Koryo dinastije, ali od manjeg društvenog značaja od Trijumfalne kapije u centru Pjongjanga, koja je morala biti veća od one pariske i koju je Dragi veliki vođa izgradio svom ocu posle njegove smrti za svega godinu i pô dana.
Iako neodoljivo podseća na Sovjetski Savez početkom sedamdesetih godina prošlog veka, osmesi ovih ljudi kao da uverljivo govore o tome da veruju u svoju zabludu, u kojoj su poslali čak dve rakete u kosmos i prete američkom imperijalizmu nuklearnom bombom. Ostavljam ih sa nežnim azijskim osmehom i verom u ponovno ujedinjenje dve Koreje, što je njihov zacrtani cilj.
I diktature, kažu, imaju dušu.

Oktobar 2011.
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It looks like all the dictators in the world have their end, but it seems that the North Korean ones last the longest and pass their right to dictatorship from father to son, like kings. Yet while I listen to the story about ‘American imperialism’ and the struggle of these people to prevent it, I cannot help but think that even the bigger players on the world’s political stage did not succeed much in opposing it. Ideology, technology and culture, I am told by my pretty guide, are the three main pillars of the socialist progress of this country which has been charted a long time ago by the greatest, most beloved leader Kim Il-sung, then unmistakably followed by the great young leader, Kim Jong-il and now by his son, the youngest leader Kim Jong-un.
This scenario is very sad in the atmosphere of widespread poverty and even famine facing this country. Yet I cannot help but remember the famous scenes from the TV screens in the 1970s, which happened during Marshall Tito’s visit to North Korea. At a packed stadium in Pyongyang, the capital, a phenomenal spectacle was taking place on a grandstand, depicting flags, characters, and various life scenes made up of thousands of performers with multi-coloured scarves, their colours alternating depending on the motif. We were fascinated by it all. Now, forty years on, these scenes come back to me while I observe with curiosity the uniformed children who exercise en masse in the open spaces of this city in a superbly organised way; in the same way I remain under the spell of the artistry and skill of the Pyongyang circus.
I was taken to the demilitarised zone, the famous Panmunjom, which has been dividing the two Koreas for the past 60 years. They were very surprised that I had already been there, only on the South side of the divide. On the other hand I was surprised by how much they already knew about me and how bluntly they questioned me about everything else they had yet to find out in order to report to the committee in charge.
‘Kimilsungia is an immortal flower blooming in the hearts of humankind in the era of independence’ is the title of one of the thousands of propaganda leaflets that this country so abounds in, and which are almost completely absurd; it refers to a variety of orchid that has been named after the Great Leader. I also found out that the new era starts with the year of his birth, called Juche, and that the new system of time keeping has been developed into an entire philosophy suitable for the man from this region, for whom the Party and the Army hold absolute authority. Soon a centenary of his birth is going to be celebrated, Juche 100, and everything is already stamped with it. The promising young leader, Kim Jong-il, spoke about this philosophy to the Party propaganda ideologues, once he took over from his father, on the 2nd of April 1974 (Juche 63).
People’s silhouettes move quietly along the city streets which are in total darkness. Cars can rarely be seen on a multitude of roads, it is mostly ancient bicycles and pickup trucks overloaded with agricultural produce and a few people who managed to squeeze in for a ride. They proudly tell me that each enterprise has its own farm which feeds the workers. It reminds me of stories from my own country immediately after the Second World War.
Gigantic bronze monuments, mosaics and pictures of the two leaders, mammoth size buildings, stadiums, theatres, circuses, recreational spaces for the workers, youth and children, are just but a part of the absurd idolatry that supercedes everything else. Here and there you can find a palace, a temple or a tomb belonging to a king of the great Koryo dynasty; but they are all less important than the Triumphal Arch in the centre of Pyongyang, which had to be bigger than the Paris one and which was built by the Dear Leader in memory of his father in only one and a half years following his death.
Even though this place irresistibly reminds me of the Soviet Union from the early 1970s, these people’s smiles aspire to convince me that they firmly believe in their delusion, which made them launch two rockets into space and threaten American imperialism with a nuclear bomb. I leave them with their gentle Asian smiles and a belief in the unification of the two Koreas, which is a goal that was set for them.
Even dictatorships, it is said, have a soul.

October 2011

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