RUSIJA – RUSSIA – РОССИЯ

Crkva i zvonik u Kuskovu, letnjoj palati porodice Seremetjevih-Church and Bell Tower in the summer palace of Sheremetev family

Crkva i zvonik u Kuskovu, letnjoj palati porodice Seremetjevih-Church and Bell Tower in the summer palace of Sheremetev family

Crkva Svetog Isaka u Sankt Peterburgu-St. Isaac's Cathedral in St. Petersburg (3)

Crkva Svetog Isaka u Sankt Peterburgu-St. Isaac’s Cathedral in St. Petersburg (3)

Drvena arhitektura pored Irkucka-Wooden architecture near Irkutsk

Drvena arhitektura pored Irkucka-Wooden architecture near Irkutsk

Fontane u Carskom selu-Fountains in Tsarskoye Selo

Fontane u Carskom selu-Fountains in Tsarskoye Selo

Hram Hristovog vaskrsa u Sankt Peterburgu-Cathedral of the Resurrection in St. Petersburg

Hram Hristovog vaskrsa u Sankt Peterburgu-Cathedral of the Resurrection in St. Petersburg

Hram Vasilija Blazenog-Saint Basil's Cathedral

Hram Vasilija Blazenog-Saint Basil’s Cathedral

Ispred Lenjinovog mauzoleja-In front of the Lenin's mausoleum

Ispred Lenjinovog mauzoleja-In front of the Lenin’s mausoleum

Lepa moskovska arhitektura-Moscow architecture

Lepa moskovska arhitektura-Moscow architecture

Letnja palata Kuskovo porodice Sheremetjevih-Facade of Kuskovo Palace, summer residence of Sheremetev family

Letnja palata Kuskovo porodice Sheremetjevih-Facade of Kuskovo Palace, summer residence of Sheremetev family

Mihajlovski teatar u Sankt Peterburgu-Mikhailovsky Theatre in St. Petersburg

Mihajlovski teatar u Sankt Peterburgu-Mikhailovsky Theatre in St. Petersburg

Muzej Ermitaz-Hermitage Museum

Muzej Ermitaz-Hermitage Museum

Na Bajkalskom jezeru-On the Lake Baikal

Na Bajkalskom jezeru-On the Lake Baikal

Na peterburskim kanalima, Crkva Hristovog vaskrsenja -St. Petersburg's canals and the Church of the Savior on Blood

Na peterburskim kanalima, Crkva Hristovog vaskrsenja -St. Petersburg’s canals and the Church of the Savior on Blood

Panorama Kremlja pored reke Moskve-A view of Kremlin by the Moskva River

Panorama Kremlja pored reke Moskve-A view of Kremlin by the Moskva River

Prvi ruski muzej koji je osnovao Petar Veliki-The first Russian museum Kunstkammer founded by Peter the Great

Prvi ruski muzej koji je osnovao Petar Veliki-The first Russian museum Kunstkammer founded by Peter the Great

Razgovor s Puskinom-A friendly talk with Pushkin

Razgovor s Puskinom-A friendly talk with Pushkin

Saborna crkva Svetog Petra i Pavla u Petropavlovskoj tvrdjavi u Sankt Peterburgu-Cathedral of St. Peter and Paul at Petropavlovskiy fortress, St. Petersburg

Saborna crkva Svetog Petra i Pavla u Petropavlovskoj tvrdjavi u Sankt Peterburgu-Cathedral of St. Peter and Paul at Petropavlovskiy fortress, St. Petersburg

Spomenik Cehovu u Moskvi-The monument to Anton Chekhov in Moscow

Spomenik Cehovu u Moskvi-The monument to Anton Chekhov in Moscow

Spomenik osnivacu Moskve Juriju Dolgorukovu-Yuri Dolgorukiy founder of Moscow

Spomenik osnivacu Moskve Juriju Dolgorukovu-Yuri Dolgorukiy founder of Moscow

Zaledjena reka Moskva-Frozen Moskva River

Zaledjena reka Moskva-Frozen Moskva River

Breze, breze i samo breze. Kao kod Čehova. Možda je te breze danima posmatrao doktor Živago na putu za daleki Sibir. Sa istim mislima posmatram ih i ja, doktor Colić, u jednoličnom pejzažu na petodnevnom putu transsibirskom železnicom ka Bajkalu. Smenjuju se gradovi i stanice sa promrzlim babuškama koje na staničnim peronima nude domaću hranu i kefir. Priznajem da mi više prija Советское Шампанское sa crvenim kavijarom na crnom hlebu, dok razmišljam hoće li se ikada taj pejzaž promeniti. Na staničnom peronu fotografišem se ispred vagona na kome piše Moskva – Irkutsk, sa šubarom na glavi. Bajkalsko jezero je zaleđeno, sa ponekim idiličnim otvorom u ledu u kome se lovi riba, a sibirska zima sa temperaturom nižom od minus trideset stepeni ledi obraze i dah. Ipak, sunce je visoko na nebu i bez daška vetra, pa se tako ova klima bolje podnosi nego kad duva beogradska košava na znatno višoj temperaturi.
Ovo je ona izvorna Rusija, u kojoj uživam. Kao i u lenjingradskim belim noćima, krstarenju tihim Donom, kafeu Puškin…
Glavni grad Moskva ipak nije prava Rusija. Brzim ekonomskim razvojem i sa trideset hiljada milionera to je danas savremeni megalopolis, ali sa dušom koja je ostala ista kao kad sam prvi put ovde došao kao student, pre trideset godina. Ljudi su i tada čitali knjige u metrou, kao i danas. Kultura ovde znači nešto posebno, to je druga, viša vrsta bogatstva, na koje svi imaju pravo. I tada su odlazili u Boljšoj teatar da, pored ostalog, dobro jedu u pauzama; to i danas rade. Pozorišna umetnost ovde je deo života koji se danas, ipak, veoma skupo plaća, ali obavezno uživa u njoj.
Današnja Rusija više nije sovjetska Rusija, mada taj duh u njoj nikada neće prestati da živi. Veliki Lenjin može mirno da spava u svom mauzoleju na Crvenom trgu. Neko drugi će, nadam se, toj naciji vratiti osmeh na lice. Možda Putin, mada se ni on mnogo ne smeje. Ali važnije je da mu se veruje da će naciji povratiti snagu, ponos, bogatstvo, a onda osmeh dolazi sam.
Ovi ljudi to zaslužuju, kao i široka, besmrtna Русская душа.

Februar 2000.
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Birch trees, birch trees, birch trees…Just like in a Chekov play. Perhaps Doctor Zhivago was looking at all those trees for days on his long journey to Siberia. With similar thoughts in my head I, Doctor Colić, gaze at them too, passing through a monotonous landscape on my 5 day long journey to Baikal on the Trans-Siberian railway. Cities and train stations come one after another; frostbitten babushkas sell homemade food and kefir on train platforms. I have to admit that I prefer Советское Шампанское  (Soviet champagne) with red caviar on brown bread, while I contemplate whether this landscape will ever change. I have a picture taken of myself, standing on a train platform, in front of the carriage with the inscription Moscow-Irkutsk; I am wearing a fur cap on my head. Baikal Lake is frozen with an occasional idyllic opening in the ice through which you can catch a fish; the Siberian winter with a temperature below -30C freezes my cheeks and my breath. Yet the sun is high in the sky and there is no trace of wind, so in a way it is easier to tolerate this climate than when košava starts blowing around Belgrade even with higher temperatures.
This is true, authentic Russia and I enjoy it. I enjoy the white nights of St. Petersburg, cruising the Don River and the Pushkin cafe…
Yet Moscow is not true Russia. With rapid economic development and with 30,000 millionaires, today it is a modern megalopolis, but with a soul that remained the same as it was thirty years ago when I visited here as a student. People were reading books in the metro then, like they are today. Culture has a special meaning here, it is wealth of a higher order, that everyone is entitled to. People used to go to the Bolshoi, to eat really well during the breaks, amongst other reasons; they do the same today. The art of theatre is just part of life here, which even though expensive today, still provides the same pleasure.
Today’s Russia is not a Soviet Russia, even though the Soviet spirit will never disappear from Russia. The great Lenin can peacefully sleep in his big mausoleum on the Red Square. Someone else is, I hope, going to bring the smile back to Russian faces. Maybe Putin, but having said that, he does not smile much either. However, it is more important that he is being trusted to bring back to his nation its power, pride and wealth and then the smile will come back naturally.
People here deserve it, as much as their large, eternal Русская душа (Russian soul).

February 2000

 

 

KALINJINGRAD – KALININGRAD – КАЛИНИНГРАД

Gradska katedrala i Kantova grobnica-Koenigsberg Cathedral with Kant' s Tomb

Gradska katedrala i Kantova grobnica-Koenigsberg Cathedral with Kant’ s Tomb

Gradska katedrala-Koenigsberg Cathedral

Gradska katedrala-Koenigsberg Cathedral

Jedna od vrata grada-Rossgarten Gate, now a restaurant

Jedna od vrata grada-Rossgarten Gate, now a restaurant

Kantov univerzitet i spomenik-Kant University and his monument

Kantov univerzitet i spomenik-Kant University and his monument

Kantova grobnica-Kant's tomb

Kantova grobnica-Kant’s tomb

Korolevska vrata koja su vodila u grad-The King's Gate at the edge of the city

Korolevska vrata koja su vodila u grad-The King’s Gate at the edge of the city

Mladenci ispred katedrale-Newlyweds in front of the Koenigsberg Cathedral

Mladenci ispred katedrale-Newlyweds in front of the Koenigsberg Cathedral

Odsjaj Don kule u Gornjem jezeru-The reflection of Dohna Tower in the Upper Lake

Odsjaj Don kule u Gornjem jezeru-The reflection of Dohna Tower in the Upper Lake

Razoreni grad u Drugom svetskom ratu-Destroyed city in WWII

Razoreni grad u Drugom svetskom ratu-Destroyed city in WWII

Restorani na jezeru-Restaurants on the lake shore

Restorani na jezeru-Restaurants on the lake shore

Saborna crkva Hrista Spasitelja-Orthodox Cathedral of Christ the Savior

Saborna crkva Hrista Spasitelja-Orthodox Cathedral of Christ the Savior

Saborna crkva Hrista Spasitelja-Orthodox Cathedral of Christ the Savior

Saborna crkva Hrista Spasitelja-Orthodox Cathedral of Christ the Savior

Statua Kanta-The statue of Immanuel Kant

Statua Kanta-The statue of Immanuel Kant

Trg pobede u centru grada-Victory Square in the city centre

Trg pobede u centru grada-Victory Square in the city centre

Smešten u Gdanjskom zalivu na Baltičkom moru, ovaj bivši nemački grad koji se zvao Königsberg dobio je svoje novo ime nakon sovjetskog osvajanja 1945. godine po Mihailu Kalinjinu, pravom boljševiku svog vremena. Tada je bio skoro do temelja razoren. Danas stanovnici žele da mu vrate staro ime, po uzoru na mnoge ruske gradove.

To je prijatno primorsko mesto i glavni grad Kalinjingradske oblasti, teritorije koja je ostala odvojena od Sovjetskog Saveza nakon što su njeni prvi susedi, Baltičke zemlje, ušle u Evropsku zajednicu. To je ujedno i sedište ruske baltičke flote, neka vrsta kontrole ove severne oblasti.

Osnovan je sredinom XIII veka od strane reda Tevtonskih vitezova, a u slavu češkog kralja Otokara II, koga je još Dante opevao u Božanskoj komediji kao jednu od najvećih ličnosti svog vremena. U velikom krstaškom pohodu tada je osnovana tvrđava Kenigzberg, u prevodu Kraljevska planina, čije ime danas želi da povrati ovaj grad. Bila je to Istočna Pruska koja je izgubila svoje slovo P. Postala je ruska oblast, ali su ostali arhitektonski podsetnici grada sa evropskom istorijom: urvrđenja, kapije, bastioni, kule, zamkovi i crkve. Ostala je i nostalgija za starim identitetom.

Grad je veoma ponosan na činjenicu da je u njemu rođen i živeo čuveni filozof Imanuel Kant čije ime nosi univerzitet u ovom gradu, kao mnoga značajna mesta. Zvezdano nebo nada mnom i moralni zakon u meni – njegova je misao i vodič za sva vremena.
I nije slučajno zašto je nastala upravo u ovom gradu, planini kraljeva.

Mart 2014.

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Situated in the Gdańsk Bay on the Baltic Sea, formerly known as a German city of Königsberg,Kaliningrad got its current name in 1945 after Soviet invasion. It was named after Mikhail Kalinin, a famous Bolshevik revolutionary of the time. Then it was virtually raised to the ground. Today, its citizens want the old city name to be restored; this has been a trend with lots of other Russian cities too.

Kaliningrad is a pleasant seaside town and also the capital of Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian territory that got physically separated from Russia proper when their first neighbours, the Baltic countries, joined the EU. This is also the seat of the Russian Baltic fleet which provides control over this Northern territory.

The city was founded around the mid-13th century by the Teutonic Knights in honour of Czech King Ottokar II, who was commended in Dante’s Divine Comedy as one of the most important figures of the time. The fortress of Königsberg, or ‘King’s Mountain’ was established at the time of the Great Crusade. Nowadays the city wants this old name back. Interestingly, this was part of East Prussia, which lost its ‘P’ and became a Russian region. Yet the city has kept many architectural traits of the European history: forts, gates, bastions, towers, castles and churches. The nostalgia about the old identity remains.

The city is very proud that Immanuel Kant, the famous philosopher, was born and lived in it. The University bears his name and so do other important places. ‘Two things awe me most, the starry sky above me and the moral law within me’ – is one of his thoughts and a timeless guideline for humanity.

It is not an accident that it was engendered here, in this city, in ‘King’s Mountain’.

March 2014

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