NORVEŠKA – NORWAY – NORGE

Trolovi su nordijska mitska bica-Trolls are Nordic mythical creatures

Trolovi su nordijska mitska bica-Trolls are Nordic mythical creatures

Kuca u kojoj je ziveo Edvard Grig-Edvard Grieg's house

Kuca u kojoj je ziveo Edvard Grig-Edvard Grieg’s house

Na brodu kroz fjord-On the boat passing through the fjord

Na brodu kroz fjord-On the boat passing through the fjord

Nordijski pejzaz-Nordic scenary

Nordijski pejzaz-Nordic scenary

Park u centru Bergena-Park in the centre of Bergen

Park u centru Bergena-Park in the centre of Bergen

Pogled na Bergen sa planine Flejen-A view of Bergen from Fleyen

Pogled na Bergen sa planine Flejen-A view of Bergen from Fleyen

Spomenik Edvardu Grigu-A statue of Edvard Grieg

Spomenik Edvardu Grigu-A statue of Edvard Grieg

Tipicne kuce hanzeatskih trgovaca u Brigenu-Hanseatic buildings in Bryggen

Tipicne kuce hanzeatskih trgovaca u Brigenu-Hanseatic buildings in Bryggen

Travnati krov kao izolacija-Grass roof as an isolation

Travnati krov kao izolacija-Grass roof as an isolation

Narodno pozoriste i spomenik Henriku Ibzenu-The National Theatre in Oslo and the monument of Henrik Ibsen

Narodno pozoriste i spomenik Henriku Ibzenu-The National Theatre in Oslo and the monument of Henrik Ibsen

Nobelov Centar za mir-Nobel peace Centre

Nobelov Centar za mir-Nobel peace Centre

Opera u Oslu-Oslo Opera House

Opera u Oslu-Oslo Opera House

Stara sahat kula na obali u Oslu-Old tower clock on the Oslo Waterfront

Stara sahat kula na obali u Oslu-Old tower clock on the Oslo Waterfront

Tvrdjava u Oslu-Oslo fortress

Tvrdjava u Oslu-Oslo fortress

U centru glavnog grada-In the centre of the capital

U centru glavnog grada-In the centre of the capital

Bio sam samo u prolazu kroz glavni grad Oslo, najstariji grad iz doba prvog norveškog kralja Haralda iz XI veka. Oslo u prevodu sa nordijskog znači “dobro polje” jer je smesten u prostranoj zelenoj dolini. Neko vreme se zvao i Kristijanija, po kralju Kristijanu IV, koji ga je ponovo izgradio u XVII veku, pošto je u potpunosti stradao u požaru. Predanje kaže da je požar izazvan vatrom sa lomača na kojima su se spaljivale veštice.
Moje pravo odrediste bio je Bergen, koji je centar najveće prirodne atrakcije Norveške, a to su fjordovi, zbog čega se grad naziva kapijom fjordova. Zapadna obala Norveške jedinstvena je po tom specifičnom reljefu, gde more duboko prodire u kopno kroz stotine useka, kojima se uvlači u njega. Na kraju jednog od dužih fjordova nalazi se stara prestonica, živopisni gradić Trondejm, u kome je i najsevernija gotska katedrala u Evropi.
Bergen je veoma lep grad, sa starim drvenim kućama jarkih boja u nordijskom stilu, duž malog zaliva u kome je smeštena luka, i po njima je prepoznatljiv. U nekim kućama smešteni su tipični restorani, rustični i intimni, u kojima se služe stari norveški specijaliteti. Ispred njih se nalazi lokalna pijaca suvenira, malih figura trolova, dimljene ribe, kao i tamnotirkiznih i pomalo grubih krzna foke, koja sam jedino ovde video.
Tokom mog boravka u Bergenu kroz glavu mi je stalno prolazila Solvegina pesma iz svite Per Gint, poznatog norveškog kompozitora Edvarda Griga. U detinjstvu sam je često svirao na staroj drvenoj flauti svog oca, tokom letnjih raspusta, kada je uspeo da mi ulije ljubav prema tom instrumentu. Zvuci Solvegine pesme sve vreme vas prate tokom posete kući kompozitora i muzeju iznad grada, odakle se pruža lep pogled ka zalivu i dolini u kojoj je smešten Bergen.
Vožnja brodom po mirnoj modrozelenoj vodi fjordova predstavlja poseban doživljaj. Dok brod lagano klizi kroz vodu, sa obe njegove strane promiču zelena brda, borove šume, raznobojne drvene nordijske kuće i pejzaži kao iz Andersenovih bajki. Možda je Andersen zaista bio njima inspirisan ako se ima na umu činjenica da je Norveška bila pod vlašću Kraljevine Danske čitavih pet stotina godina, sve do početka XX veka. I kada se 1905. godine Norveška izjasnila da želi da bude monarhija, ispostavilo se da više nema sopstvenu dinastiju, pa je onda danski kralj Karl V preuzeo presto i postao norveški monarh, kralj Hakon VII.
Norveška je imala sreću da pronađe naftu u Severnom moru i od tada skoro da nema većih problema. Priča se da Norvežani uopšte ne bi morali da rade, a da bi svi živeli dobro, dovoljno je da rade samo stranci koji žive u toj zemlji.
Priča se i da je duboko u ledenim pećinama svog najsevernijeg arhipelaga Svalbard Norveška napravila savremenu, fito verziju Nojeve barke. U njoj su, možda za neka buduća pokolenja posle svetske katastrofe, sklonjene i uskladištene semenke celokupnog biljnog sveta na zemlji. Poznata po svom humanitarnom radu širom sveta, Norveška je i tim projektom pokazala koliko brine o budućnosti čovečanstva.
Nadajmo se da takvu budućnost nećemo doživeti, bar ne u dogledno vreme.

Septembar 2003.
__________________________________________________________________

I just passed through the capital Oslo, the oldest city from the times of the first Norwegian King Harald in the 11th century. Oslo means ‘the good field’ in Norwegian, as it is situated in a vast green valley. For a while it was called Christiania after King Christian IV who rebuilt the city in the 17th century, after it was completely devastated in a fire. Legend has it that the fire was caused by the stakes on which witches were burnt.
My main destination was Bergen, the centre of Norway’s biggest natural attractions -fjords, which is why this city has been called the ‘gate of fjords’. The west coast of Norway is unique due to this typical relief where the sea penetrates the land through hundreds of crevices, forming narrow inlets. Trondheim, a picturesque town and ex-capital, is situated at the end of one of the longer fjords. Its cathedral is the northernmost cathedral in Europe.
Bergen is a beautiful city, famous for old wooden houses built in the Nordic style, painted in bright colours; it is situated in a bay with a small port. Some of the houses contain typical restaurants, with rustic and intimate setting, serving traditional Norwegian dishes. In front of them there is a local market selling souvenirs, miniature troll figures, smoked fish as well as dark turquoise, somewhat rough, seal skins which I have seen nowhere else.
During my stay in Bergen I kept thinking about Solveig’s Song from the suite Peer Gynt by the famous Norwegian composer Edvard Grieg. As a child I often played this tune on the old wooden flute that belonged to my father, during the summer holidays, when he managed to pass his love for this instrument on to me. The sounds of Solveig’s Song accompany you during the visit to the composer’s house and the museum above the city, from where there is a lovely view of the bay and the valley in which Bergen is nestled.
A boat ride on the calm, blue-green waters of the fjord is an exceptional experience. While the boat is slowly gliding on the water, on both sides you can see green hills, pine woods, multicoloured Norwegian huts and landscapes just like in Andersen’s fairytales. Perhaps Andersen was really inspired by them, given  that Norway was under the rule of the Kingdom of Denmark for 500 years, until the beginning of the 20th century. And when in 1905 the Norwegians declared that they wanted a monarchy, it turned out it had no dynasty of its own; so then the Danish King Karl V took over the throne and became Norway’s first monarch, King Haakon VII.
Norway was lucky to find oil in the Northern Sea and since then it has not had any major problems. It is said that Norwegians would not have to work at all and they would all live well, and for everyone to live well, only the foreigners in this country would have to work. It is said that Norway made a modern, phyto version of Noah’s Ark deep in the ice caves of its northernmost archipelago Svalbard. The seeds of all the Earth’s plants and vegetation are stored here, maybe for the new generations to come after a catastrophic world’s end. Well known worldwide for its humanitarian work, Norway has shown with this project as well how much it cares about the future of humanity.
Let us hope we will not meet that future, at least not for the time being.

September 2003

 

Svalbard – Svalbard

Glavni grad-The capital Longyearbyen

Glavni grad-The capital Longyearbyen

Glecer u Isfjordu-Isfjord Von Postbreen glacier

Glecer u Isfjordu-Isfjord Von Postbreen glacier

Irvasi i pogled na dolinu-Reindeer and a view of the valley

Irvasi i pogled na dolinu-Reindeer and a view of the valley

Lokalni pejzaz-A local scenary

Lokalni pejzaz-A local scenary

Najseverniji Lenjinov spomenik na svetu-Northernmost Lenin's monument in the world

Najseverniji Lenjinov spomenik na svetu-Northernmost Lenin’s monument in the world

Blizu Severnog pola-Close to the North Pole

Blizu Severnog pola-Close to the North Pole

Gladni beli medvedi-Hungry polar bears

Gladni beli medvedi-Hungry polar bears

Kitovi na Svalbardu-Whales blowing

Kitovi na Svalbardu-Whales blowing

Najseverniji Lenjinov spomenik na svetu-Northernmost Lenin's monument in the world

Najseverniji Lenjinov spomenik na svetu-Northernmost Lenin’s monument in the world

Nas cilj je komunizam-Our goal is communism

Nas cilj je komunizam-Our goal is communism

Pogled na dolinu-A view of the valley

Pogled na dolinu-A view of the valley

Polarna svetlost-Aurora borealis or the nothern lights-Aurora boreal

Polarna svetlost-Aurora borealis or the nothern lights-Aurora boreal

Pyramiden

Pyramiden

Svetsko skladiste semena-Global Seed Vault

Svetsko skladiste semena-Global Seed Vault

Upozorenje-Warning

Upozorenje-Warning

Usamljeni beli medved-A lonely polar bear

Usamljeni beli medved-A lonely polar bear

Jednog sunčanog zimskog jutra Ulrika se bezbrižno probudila u svojoj kolibi
usred snežne beline arhipelaga Špicberg na krajnjem severu sveta. U stvari
probudio je čudan zvuk koji se već sledećeg trenutka pretvorio u noćnu moru.
Ogromni polarni medved u potrazi za hranom polomio je prozor i njegovo
nezgrapno telo koje je rušilo sve pred sobom probijalo se unutra uz
strahovitu riku. Prepadnuta Ulrika bacala je sve što je stigla na glavu
medveda koja je skoro bila pred njom, tako da je mogla da oseti njegov
zadah. Poštolj je, nažalost, stajao pored samog prozora, tako da ga se njen
suprug domogao u poslednjem trenutku i njime ubio zver.
Ovo je samo jedna od mnogih priča koja se, srećom, dobro završila. Neke,
nažalost, nisu. Tri hiljade belih medveda i dve hiljade ljudi žive nekoliko
vekova zajedno, od kada su ljudi naselili ova negostoljubiva ostrva najbliža
Severnom polu. Medvedi ipak mnogo duže, tako da se s pravom mogu nazvati
starosedeocima Svalbarda. Ljudi to ovde poštuju i zato Ulrika i dalje odlazi
na izlete u divljinu, koja je čudesno lepa. Za svaki slučaj svi nose puške,
mada medved sme da se ubije isključivo u samoodbrani, a krzno uvek pripada
državi.
Ima tu i drugih, pitomijih životinja kao što su polarni psi koji će sa
radošću vući sanke po snegu, ili čak po suvom ali na točkovima, i jedino
očekivati malo nežnosti na kraju vožnje. Foke kao hrana za medvede, polarne
lisice i irvasi sa nešto kraćim nogama da bi se što manje toplote gubilo iz
tela, takođe tu žive. Zanimljivo je da beli medved može tri dana da pliva u
ledenoj vodi i pređe po nekoliko hiljada kilometara u polarnom krugu.
Špicbergen u prevodu znači šiljate planine i zaista je pejzaž ispunjen
njima. Sve boje su prisutne na prelasku sezona, mada preovlađuju svetlosiva
i bela boja ledenih vrhova i glečera sa plavim hiljadugodišnjim presecima,
kao i sve nijanse zelene boje na nebu, efekat poznat kao aurora borealis ili
Polarna svetlost u dugim zimski noćima koje traju po nekoliko meseci, kao
zatim i dan.
Glavni grad Longjerbjen je najsevernije naselje na svetu u kome vlada
besprekorno uređenje norveškog tipa. Ako mislite da ste istraživači koji su
ovde prvi kročili, kaže se u brošuri, veoma ćete se prevariti. Ovde je
zastupljena čitava infrastruktura gradića, od proizvodnje energije do
tipskih kuća sa bojama koje moraju da se uklapaju u boje prirode. Više od
polovine stanovnika je mlađe od 25 godina. Ovde je zabranjeno, koliko je to
moguće, da se rađa, jer nema adekvatnog porodilišta, kao i da se umire jer
stalno zaleđeni sloj zemlje, koji se zove permafrost, izbacuje posmrtne
ostatke na površinu. Dakle, trudnice i teško bolesni se vraćaju na kopno.
Iako je zvanično norveška teritorija, Svalbard ne pripada Šengenskoj grupi
zemalja, tako da se na njemu svako može naseliti ko želi da radi. Od
stranaca najviše ima Tajlanđana. Iako je kopanje uglja bilo od strateških
interesa u prošlosti, ono je i danas ostalo u ruskom gradiću Barencburg, dok
se u drugom, napuštenom, ruskom naselju Piramida, nazvanom tako po obližnjoj
planini sličnog oblika, nalazi najseverniji Lenjinov spomenik. Rusi su tu
odavno prestali da kopaju ugalj, tako da danas njihovo prisustvo ima samo
strateški značaj. Naime, Svaldbardskim sporazumom iz 1920. godine, više od
trideset zemalja potpisnica mogu da se bave istraživačkim i ekonomskim
aktivnostima, koje su zadržali uglavnom Norvežani i Rusi, a sam arhipelag
postaje demilitarizovan.
I, na kraju, na periferiji glavnog gradića nailazimo na neupadljivi betonski
tunel koji vodi duboko u zemlju, Global Seed Vault ili fito verziju Nojeve
barke. U njoj su, možda za neka buduća pokolenja posle svetske katastrofe,
sklonjene i uskladištene semenke celokupnog biljnog sveta na zemlji. Poznata
po svom humanitarnom radu širom sveta, Norveška je i tim projektom pokazala
koliko brine o budućnosti čovečanstva. 
Nadajmo se da takvu budućnost nećemo doživeti, bar ne u dogledno vreme.

Septembar 2014.

_________________________________________________________

One sunny winter morning, Ulrika woke without a care in her cabin on
Spitsbergen, in the middle of the snowy white archipelago of Svalbard in the
northernmost part of the world. What actually woke her was a strange sound
that turned into a nightmare the very next instant. A huge polar bear
searching for food had smashed a window and his ungainly body, demolishing
everything in its path, broke inside with a dreadful roar. Terrified, Ulrika
threw whatever she could at the bear’s head. It was so close that she could
feel its breath. Right next to the window was a pedestal; her husband
grabbed it at the last minute and killed the beast with it.

This is just one of many stories that luckily had a happy end.
Unfortunately, some do not. Three thousand polar bears have been living
together with two thousand people for several centuries, ever since these
uninviting islands closest to the North Pole were settled. But the bears
have been here a lot longer so they can rightfully be called indigenous to
Svalbard. People respect that here and this is why Ulrika continues to go on
excursions into the wild, which is amazingly beautiful. Just in case,
everyone carries a gun, although bears can only be killed in self-defense
and the fur always belongs to the state.

There are other more docile animals here, such as polar dogs that happily
pull sleds on the snow or even wheeled carts on dry land, and all they
expect is a bit of kindness at the end of the ride. Other animals that live
here include seals as food for the bears, polar foxes and reindeer with
somewhat shorter legs so they lose as little body heat as possible. It is
interesting to note that polar bears can swim for three days in the icy
water and cross several thousand kilometers in the Arctic Circle.

Spitsbergen means sharp-peaked mountains and the landscape is truly filled
with them. All colors can be found when the seasons change, although what
prevails is the pale gray and white of the icy peaks and glaciers with blue
thousand-year old ice, and all shades of green in the sky from the effect
known as the aurora borealis or northern lights during the long winter
nights that last several months.

Longyearbyen, the capital, is the northernmost town in the world, with an
impeccable Norwegian type of government. If you think you are explorers
setting foot here for the first time, you will be greatly disappointed, says
a brochure. The town has a complete infrastructure ranging from energy
production to standardized houses with colors that must blend with the
colors of nature. Over half the population is under the age of 25. Giving
birth is discouraged, as much as possible, since there is no suitable
maternity ward, and dying as well, since the permafrost brings the remains
to the surface. So pregnant women and the seriously ill go back to dry land.

Although it is officially Norwegian territory, Svalbard is not part of the
Schengen Area countries, so anyone who wants to work can move there. The
most numerous foreigners are from Thailand. Coal mining was a strategic
interest in the past, but today the only mining is in the small Russian town
of Barentsburg. The other abandoned Russian settlement of Pyramiden, named
after a nearby mountain with a similar shape, has Lenin’s northernmost
statue. The Russians stopped mining coal here long ago, so their presence
has only strategic meaning. According to the Svalbard Treaty of 1920, any of
the signatories may engage in commercial activities, but only Russia and
Norway use this right today. The Treaty demilitarized the archipelago.

And finally, on the outskirts of the capital is an inconspicuous concrete
tunnel that leads deep into the ground to the Global Seed Vault or
phyto-version of Noah’s Ark. It stores seeds from the earth’s entire plant
world, perhaps for some future generation after a world-wide catastrophe.
Norway is renowned for its humanitarian work around the world, and through
this project has shown how much it cares for the future of mankind.

We hope that such a catastrophe will not come to pass, at least not in the
foreseeable future.

September 2014

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