MONGOLIJA – MONGOLIA

Hram Gol sum-Gol sum Temple

Hram Gol sum-Gol sum Temple

Memorijalni kompleks Zaisan s pogledom na glavni grad-The Zaisan Memorial with a view of the capital

Memorijalni kompleks Zaisan s pogledom na glavni grad-The Zaisan Memorial with a view of the capital

Molitveni tockovi kraj budisticke skole-Praying wheels next to the Buddhist school

Molitveni tockovi kraj budisticke skole-Praying wheels next to the Buddhist school

Mongolske vojske razlikovale su se po simbolima na potkovicama svojih konja - Horseprints of Mongolian armies

Mongolske vojske razlikovale su se po simbolima na potkovicama svojih konja – Horseprints of Mongolian armies

Muzej Bogd kana-The museum of Bogd Khan

Muzej Bogd kana-The museum of Bogd Khan

Naselje u unutrasnjosti zemlje-Settlement in Tsagaannuur distict

Naselje u unutrasnjosti zemlje-Settlement in Tsagaannuur distict

Pethub budisticki institut-Pethub Buddhist Institute

Pethub budisticki institut-Pethub Buddhist Institute

Prozori na muzeju poslednjeg mongolskog kana-Windows on the Museum of the last Mongolian Khan

Prozori na muzeju poslednjeg mongolskog kana-Windows on the Museum of the last Mongolian Khan

Statua Dzingis-kana na ulazu u Parlament-Genghis Khan's statue at the entrance to the Parliament

Statua Dzingis-kana na ulazu u Parlament-Genghis Khan’s statue at the entrance to the Parliament

Tradicionalne jurte-Traditional yurts

Tradicionalne jurte-Traditional yurts

Zgrada opere i baleta u Ulan Batoru-The Opera and ballet building in Ulan Bator

Zgrada opere i baleta u Ulan Batoru-The Opera and ballet building in Ulan Bator

Zimska palata Bogd-kana - The Winter palace of the Bogd Khan

Zimska palata Bogd-kana – The Winter palace of the Bogd Khan

Zlatna statua Bude u podnozju memorijalnog kompleksa Zaisan-Buddha's golden statue at the foot of the Zaisan Memorial

Zlatna statua Bude u podnozju memorijalnog kompleksa Zaisan-Buddha’s golden statue at the foot of the Zaisan Memorial

Budisticka skola-A Buddhist school

Budisticka skola-A Buddhist school

Deca na centralnom trgu-Children on the Sukhbaatar central square

Deca na centralnom trgu-Children on the Sukhbaatar central square

Dzingis-kanovi potomci-Genghis Khan's descendants

Dzingis-kanovi potomci-Genghis Khan’s descendants

Posle leta preko “mesečevog pejzaža” sleteo sam u Ulan Bator, koji se smestio u jednu zelenu dolinu. Postojbina Džingis-kana, osnivača dinastije koja je vladala Azijom i delom Evrope, danas je država u tranziciji, kako se popularno nazivaju zemlje bivšeg socijalizma. Od velikog Kana dugo je bila svedena na rusku provinciju, pa je čak i ćirilicu prihvatila. Tibetanski budizam, šamanizam i lamaizam ovde, međutim, imaju veoma duboke korene, koje ni veliki Lenjin, ni Staljin, ni njihov lokalni sledbenik Cedenbal nisu mogli da istrgnu iz naroda. Palatu poslednjeg, Bogd-kana, koji je umro 1924. godine, prekrila je patina. Nalazi se na periferiji Ulan Batora i svedoči o duhovnoj moći mongolskih vladara. Podseća me na palate japanskih šoguna, samo što je znatno manja.

Ogromna statua zlatnog Bude nalazi se u podnožju revolucionarnog memorijalnog kompleksa Zaisan, na brdu iznad grada, i svedoči o preplitanju tih elemenata u mongolskom narodu, koji se sada duhovno ponovo okreće sebi. Beskrajna prostranstva ove zemlje, prošarana su malim budističkim hramovima, do kojih se dolazi uz velike napore i posle dugih putovanja kroz pustinje i stepe, posebno na jugu zemlje, prema Tibetu kao duhovnoj postojbini. Budizam, kao državna ideologija u XV veku je nadvladao šamanizam, čiji su paganski rituali do skora bili na izdisaju. Šamani u svom originalnom ili lamaističkom obliku, pripadnici izvorne mongolske religije, danas obnavljaju svoje ceremonije u plemenima u pustinji Altaj-Gobi i drugim krajevima.

Jurte su tradicionalni šatori kružne osnove u kojima Mongoli vole da borave. Čak i kada imaju svoju kuću, u dvorištu razapnu jurtu. U udaljenim, hladnim i nepristupačnim stepama, u maglovitom prostranstvu pustinja ili ledenih planina, svuda postoji poneka jurta u kojoj se odvija život i iz koje vijori dim, ma koliko okolina delovala divlje i nepristupačno. U jurti je uvek opstajao ovaj narod gorštaka i lovaca, uz pomoć orlova, hrabar i nepobediv, ostajući veran budizmu mongolskog tipa.

Neko mi je davno rekao da ceo Ulan Bator miriše na ovčji loj, i skoro da je tako. Ali centralni gradski trg Sukhbaatar, sa jednom od najvećih i najlepših zgrada parlamenta, ostavlja drugačiji utisak. Na ulazu se nalazi ogromna skulptura Džingis-kana kao nacionalnog simbola, sa dva konjanika čuvara, a sa zadnje strane zgrade je spomenik na kome je mongolski lav sa više od stotinu raznih simbola u podnožju. Simboli su bili utisnuti u konjske potkovice, tako da su se vojske, na osnovu tragova konja, mogle razlikovati prilikom osvajanja teritorija. Sa trga su me ispratila školska deca, koja vole da se slikaju. Devojčice su izgovarale svoja lepa i neobična imena, na primer Enamon, dok je jedan dečak uporno ponavljao kako se zove Džingis-kan. Svestan je da njegova zemlja poseduje jedno istorijsko ime koje prepoznaje ceo svet.

Od njega je strepela bar istočna polovina tog sveta u neka davna i slavna vremena.

 

Maj 2009.

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Following my flight over the ‘Moon landscape’ I landed in Ulan Bator which is nestled in a green valley. The homeland of Genghis Khan, the founder of the dynasty that ruled Asia and part of Europe, today it is a country in transition as the ex-socialist countries are popularly called. Since the time of the Great Khan, it was reduced to a mere Russian province for a long time, and it even adopted Cyrillic script. However, Tibetan Buddhism, Shamanism and Lamaism have very deep roots here that could not be taken away from the people’s psyche even by the Great Lenin, or Stalin or their local follower Tsedenbal. The palace of the last great ruler, Bogd Khaan, who died in 1924, has fallen into disrepair. It is situated on the outskirts of Ulan Bator and is a testament to the spiritual power of the Mongolian leaders. It reminded me of the palaces of Japanese shoguns, even though it is considerably smaller.

A huge statue of the Golden Buddha is situated at the foot of the hill which sprawls above the city; the hill itself is a home to the revolutionary complex Zaisan, and so these opposing ideologies which intertwine in the mind of Mongolian people co-exist next to each other. However, the Mongolian people are starting to look back to their spiritual roots. Infinite landscape is dotted with small Buddhist temples which can be reached only with a lot of effort, after long journeys through desert and steppe, especially in the South of the country, on the way to Tibet, the spiritual homeland of these people. Buddhism which became an official ideology in the 15th century finally defeated Shamanism whose pagan rituals were dying a slow death for a long time. The original Shamans who cherish the tradition of Lamaism and are proponents of Mongolia’s primeval religion, perform their tribal rites in the Altay-Gobi desert and other places.

Yurts are traditional tent-like dwellings with a circular base in which Mongolian people like to spend their time. Even when they have their own house they often put up a yurt in their yard. In remote, cold and inaccessible steppes, in the misty expanses of deserts or icy mountains, you will always find at least one yurt in which life goes on and the smoke comes out of the chimney, regardless of how wild or impenetrable its surroundings seem. These highlanders and hunters always survived in yurts, helped by eagles, brave and invincible, staying true to the Buddhism of Mongolian variety.

Once, a long time ago someone told me that the entire Ulan Bator smells of mutton lard. It is almost like that. However, the main city square, Sukhbaatar, with one of the biggest and most beautiful parliament buildings, leaves a different impression. At the entrance you can see the enormous statue of Genghis Khan, the national symbol, with two guardian horsemen, while at the back of the building there is a monument of the Mongolian Lion with more than a hundred symbols engraved on its base. These symbols were engraved in horseshoes, so that various armies could be tracked by their horse prints while conquering different territories.

Some schoolchildren, that enjoyed being taken photos of, saw me off from the main square. The girls told me their beautiful sounding and unusual names, such as Enamon,while one boy kept repeating that his name is Genghis Khan. He was aware that his country possessed one historical name that is recognised by the entire world.

At least the Eastern hemisphere dreaded him in those glorious, olden days.

May 2009

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