JUŽNI SUDAN – SOUTH SUDAN

Katedrala Sv. Tereze-St. Theresa Cathedral

Katedrala Sv. Tereze-St. Theresa Cathedral

Konjokonjo pijaca-Konyokonyo market

Konjokonjo pijaca-Konyokonyo market

Kupanje u Nilu-Bathing in the Nile

Kupanje u Nilu-Bathing in the Nile

Nedeljna misa u parohiji Sv. Josifa u Dzubi-Sunday mass in St Joseph Parish in Juba

Nedeljna misa u parohiji Sv. Josifa u Dzubi-Sunday mass in St Joseph Parish in Juba

Pijaca koza-The goat market

Pijaca koza-The goat market

Predsednici-The Presidents

Predsednici-The Presidents

U gradu-In the city

U gradu-In the city

Zahvalnost ocu nacije-Gratitude to the Father of the Nation

Zahvalnost ocu nacije-Gratitude to the Father of the Nation

Dan nezavisnosti-The Independence Day

Dan nezavisnosti-The Independence Day

Dzamija u Dzubi-A mosque in Juba

Dzamija u Dzubi-A mosque in Juba

Etiopska pravoslavna crkva u Dzubi-Ethiopian Orthodox Church in Juba

Etiopska pravoslavna crkva u Dzubi-Ethiopian Orthodox Church in Juba

Jedan od trgova u glavnom gradu-A square in the capital

Jedan od trgova u glavnom gradu-A square in the capital

Katedrala Svih svetih-All Saints Cathedral

Katedrala Svih svetih-All Saints Cathedral

Kupanje u Nilu-Bathing in the Nile

Kupanje u Nilu-Bathing in the Nile

Most na Belom Nilu u Dzubi-Juba Bridge over White Nile

Most na Belom Nilu u Dzubi-Juba Bridge over White Nile

Organizacija Pomoc norveskog naroda u blizini-Norwegian People's Aid nearby

Organizacija Pomoc norveskog naroda u blizini-Norwegian People’s Aid nearby

Politicke aktivnosti na hotelskoj terasi-Political activities on the hotel terrace

Politicke aktivnosti na hotelskoj terasi-Political activities on the hotel terrace

Zamisljen-A thinker

Zamisljen-A thinker

Ovaj deo sveta upoznao sam pre dvadeset godina kroz priče mog brata Milana, koji je tamo boravio 1992. godine. Otišao je kao lekar organizacije ‘Pomoć norveškog naroda’ da bi zbrinjavao ranjenike i lečio narod koji je u to vreme bio zahvaćen vihorom građanskog rata izmedju muslimanskog severa i hrišćanskog juga Sudana. Vlada u Kartumu, glavnom gradu tadašnje zajedničke države, kao zaslugu za izručenje francuskog neprijatelja broj jedan, teroriste Karlosa zvanog Šakal koji se krio u Sudanu, dobila je za uzvrat borbene avione miraž koje je koristila u borbama protiv juga zemlje. Bilo je mnogo žrtava u tom, ionako nerazvijenom delu, koji nije imao skoro nikakvu medicinsku zaštitu. U improvizovanoj poljskoj bolnici, kao jedini lekar na velikom području, bio je prinuđen da, pored zbrinjavanja ratnih rana, kao hirurg izvodi mnoge zahvate, od kojih je za neke znao samo iz knjiga: porođaji, povrede oka, ujedi nilskog konja. Najveca nagrada bila mu je zahvalnost lokalnih stanovnika koji su mu, pokraj bolnice, napravili kućicu od blata i opremili je. Pripadnici mnogih plemena, od kojih je najveće i najpoznatije Dinka, još uvek su tela premazivali blatom i pepelom, a civilizacijske tekovine bile su im potpuno nepoznate pa ih se stoga teško moglo naterati na bilo kakvo lečenje.

Mnogo godina posle toga, sklopljeno je krhko primirje severa i juga. Legendarni vođa Oslobodilačkog pokreta za Južni Sudan, Džon Garang, postao je i prvi predsednik zemlje koja je kasnije, 2011. godine, zvanično postala nezavisna drzava, a Sudan prestao da bude najveća zemlja Afrike. Bio bi srećan da je to doživeo, ali je, nažalost, vrlo brzo poginuo u helikopterskoj nesreći.

Južni Sudan poseduje skoro sva prirodna bogatstva, između ostalog i naftu, koja je jabuka razdora izmedju Severa i Juga.  Zemlja se nalazi u tropskom pojasu u kome sve uspeva, ali se te pogodnosti teško koriste jer se, jednostavno, ne zna kako. U takvim situacijama obično uskaču oni koji znaju, ali koji zauzvrat mnogo traže.

Glavni grad Džuba pun je međunarodnih organizacija stvorenih, upravo, sa tom namenom. Svojim velikim džipovima krstare novom zemljom ispitujući mogućnosti da tu i ostanu. Nedeljom obavezno tim vozilima zauzmu parking katedrale Svih svetih neposredno ispred  samog ulaza. I ostale crkve su pune za vreme nedeljnih službi, zbog toga što hrišćani čine najveći deo stanovništva. Džamije su pune petkom.

Grad je veoma siromašan i zapušten, često bez osnovne infrastrukture. Najlepše mesto u njemu je velika kamena terasa hotela Juba Bridge na obali Belog Nila, u prijatnoj senci stogodišnjeg drveća i sa pogledom na ovu, naizgled mirnu, ali brzu reku. Za ono što zauzvrat pruža, hotel je jedan od najskupljih na svetu, ali je mesto svih važnijih zbivanja u zemlji. Za vreme mog boravka održavala se svečanost povodom uspostavljanja pravnog sistema, u afričkom stilu, uz igre i pesme i pod pokroviteljstvom Predsednika Salva Kiir Mayardit-a, koji uvek nosi svoj prepoznatljivi crni kaubojski šešir.

Odlazim u nadi da će ova, trenutno najmlađa država na svetu, uspeti da održi svoj entuzijazam na dugom putu koji je čeka. Bar za početak ima jedan dobar narod koji još uvek živi u uverenju da je ispunjen najvažniji preduslov – imati sopstvenu zemlju.

Februar 2012.
___________________________________________________

I got to know this part of the world some twenty years ago through the stories of my brother Milan, who spent some time there in 1992. He went there as a doctor for the Norwegian People’s Aid to care for the wounded and to treat people, at the time, in the vortex of a civil war between the Muslim populated North and the Christian populated South. The Government in Khartoum, the capital of the undivided country at the time, extradicted Carlos the Jackal, a known terrorist and France’s number one state enemy, who was hiding in Sudan. In return for that favour, it received Mirage military aircrafts and used them against the rebelling South. There were many casualties in this, anyway underdeveloped, part of the country, where medical help was virtually non-existent. My brother was the only doctor in a large area, and working from an improvised field hospital, he had no choice but to treat not only combat wounds, but also to perform many surgical procedures, some of which he knew only from medical books – delivering babies, eye injuries, wounds from hippopotamus bites. His biggest reward was the gratitude of the local people, who built him a mud hut, next to the hospital, and furnished it. Members of many tribes, notably the Dinka, still smeared their bodies in mud and ashes, and having not heard of any civilizational advancements, it was next to impossible to make them receive any kind of medical treatment.

Many years later, a fragile peace truce was brokered between the North and the South. John Garang, the legendary leader of the Sudan’s People Liberation Army, became the first President of the country which later, in 2011, became officially independent. Thus, Sudan stopped being the largest country on the African continent. John would have been happy to witness all this, but unfortunately he died in a helicopter crash soon after getting into power.

South Sudan has almost all the natural resources, including oil, which has always been the bone of contention between the North and the South. The country is located in the tropical belt which is rich in all sorts of resources, it is just that they are not used because there is no know-how about how to exploit them. In such cases, those with the know-how jump in, but in return they take a lot. The capital Juba is full of international organisations who have come to do just that. They cruise the country in their big jeeps, assessing whether they should stay. On Sundays, their large vehicles occupy the parking in front of the All Saints Cathedral, right in front of the entrance. Other churches are also full during the Sunday service because Christians make up the majority of the population. The mosques are equally full on Fridays.

The city itself is very poor and neglected, often without basic infrastructure. The nicest place in it is the large stone terrace of the Juba Bridge Hotel on the bank of the White Nile; the pleasant shadow is provided by the old trees and the view stretches across this seemingly calm, but rapid river. For what it offers, this hotel is one of the most expensive ones in the world, but it is also the venue for every important event in this country. During my stay here there was a big celebration because the legal system was set up officially; it was in the African style, with song and dance and under the auspices of the President, Salva Kiir Mayardit, who always wears his typical black cowboy hat.

I leave here hoping that this, currently the youngest, state in the world will keep its enthusiasm on the long road stretching in front of it into the future. For a start, they have good people who believe that the main prerequisite – having their own country – has been fulfilled.

February 2012

Leave a Reply