ETIOPIJA – ETHIOPIA – ኢትዮጵያ

Crkva Sv. Džordža u glavnom gradu-St. George's Cathedral, Addis Ababa

Crkva Sv. Džordža u glavnom gradu-St. George’s Cathedral, Addis Ababa

 

Crkva Svetog Džordža uklesana u steni u obliku krsta u Lalibeli-St George Church carved from solid rock in the shape of a cross in Lalibela

Crkva Svetog Džordža uklesana u steni u obliku krsta u Lalibeli-St George Church carved from solid rock in the shape of a cross in Lalibela

Čuvar crkve-Guardian of the church

Čuvar crkve-Guardian of the church

Etiopska deca-Ethiopean children

Etiopska deca-Ethiopean children

Pećine u steni-Caves in the rock

Pećine u steni-Caves in the rock

Krune ranijih kraljeva-Crowns of the former kings

Krune ranijih kraljeva-Crowns of the former kings

Iron Lion Zion

Iron Lion Zion

Etiopski avio prevoznik kruži severom zemlje-Ethiopean Airlines cruising the north

Etiopski avio prevoznik kruži severom zemlje-Ethiopean Airlines cruising the north

Sveštenik pokazuje etiopski krst-Priest showing Ethiopian cross

Sveštenik pokazuje etiopski krst-Priest showing Ethiopian cross

Tamne naočare štite ga od bliceva-Dark glasses protect him from flashes

Tamne naočare štite ga od bliceva-Dark glasses protect him from flashes

U crkvi na jezeru Tana-In the church by Tana Lake

U crkvi na jezeru Tana-In the church by Tana Lake

Vernici-Believers

Vernici-Believers

Zene u crkvi-Women in the church

Zene u crkvi-Women in the church

Misticna svetlost u Lalibeli-Mystical light in Lalibela

Misticna svetlost u Lalibeli-Mystical light in Lalibela

Pre mise-Before the mass

Pre mise-Before the mass

Radnja za kulturno odevanje-Cultural clothes shop

Radnja za kulturno odevanje-Cultural clothes shop

Scena iz Aksuma-A scene from Aksum

Scena iz Aksuma-A scene from Aksum

Svestenik otkriva ikone-Priest revealing icons

Svestenik otkriva ikone-Priest revealing icons

Svestenik pokazuje etiopski krst-Priest showing Ethiopian cross

Svestenik pokazuje etiopski krst-Priest showing Ethiopian cross

Svestenik sa krstovima i krunama vladara-Priest with crosses and crowns of former rulers

Svestenik sa krstovima i krunama vladara-Priest with crosses and crowns of former rulers

Tamne naocare stite ga od bliceva-Dark glasses protect him from flashes

Tamne naocare stite ga od bliceva-Dark glasses protect him from flashes

Tu se cuva Deset bozjih zapovesti-Ten Commandments are kept there

Tu se cuva Deset bozjih zapovesti-Ten Commandments are kept there

Vernik-Believer

Vernik-Believer

Zeleznicka stanica-Railway station in Addis Ababa

Zeleznicka stanica-Railway station in Addis Ababa

Ova mistična pravoslavna zemlja na Rogu Afrike prava je riznica duhovnog bogatstva i legendi. Jedna od njih kaže da je kraljica od Sabe (koju danas prisvajaju mnogi narodi u regionu) otišla u posetu judejskom kralju Solomonu, kome se veoma dopala. Posle te posete rodio se Menelik, rodonačelnik etiopskih dinastija, čiji je poslednji potomak bio car Hajle Selasije. Poslednji hrišćanski monarh besplatno je ponudio zemlju američkim crncima i tako postao idol rastafarijanskog pokreta i rege muzike Boba Marlija, kao i njegovih sledbenika. Ras Tafari je bio carev regent do njegovog punoletstva, pa od njegovog imena potiče naziv pokreta.

Jedan od znamenitih careva iz davne prošlosti zvao se Lalibela. Da narod ne bi odlazio u Svetu zemlju na hodocašće i prolazio kroz neprijateljske predele, on je na severu zemlje izgradio novi Jerusalim. Crkvama je dao ista imena, a čak je i jedan presušeni potočić dobio ime prema reci Jordan. Ono što iznenađuje je činjenica da su crkve isklesane u kamenu, nekada čak i ispod zemlje, kao što je najpoznatija Crkva Svetog Đorđa. Lalibela ili “anđeosko delo”, osam stotina godina staro, nalazi se danas pod zaštitom Uneska. I dok u znoju lica svog skidate cipele i grančicom akacije rasterujete rojeve muva, sve to odmah zanemarite pred lepotom koju vam pružaju unutrašnjost kamenih crkvi i crni sveštenici, koji u šarenim odorama ponosno stoje ispred vas, sa ogromnim etiopskim krstovima u ruci i tamnim naočarima kojima se brane od bljesaka fotoaparata.

Oko jezera Tana, koje je izvor Plavog Nila, nalaze se crkve iz XIII veka, gde ljubazni sveštenici ponosno pokazuju svoje relikvije i crkvene knjige sa listovima od kozje kože, zbog čega su tako dugo očuvane. Freske iz tog vremena, s prikazom motiva i likova svetaca, odraz su duboko ukorenjenog pravoslavlja u ovoj zemlji.

Na severu zemlje nalazi se gradić Aksum, nekada centar velike aksumitske dinastije i carstva, najvećeg i najsnažnijeg između Rima i Persije, koje se u egipatskim zapisima naziva “zemljom bogova”. Visoki obelisci ili stele ostaci su tog carstva, a jedan od njih je donedavno stajao na trgu u Rimu, gde ga je postavio Musolini, nakon osvajanja Etiopije. Posle mnogo godina, nedavno je vraćen u Aksum. Tu je i kupalište kraljice od Sabe, velika nova Crkva Svete Marije Sionske, koju je Hajle Selasije sagradio narodu, kao i obližnja mala crkva u koju sme da uđe samo nekoliko njenih sveštenika. Tu se, navodno, čuva Deset božjih zapovesti, što, naravno, niko nije proverio, ali niko i ne poriče. Od vere se drugačije i ne očekuje.

U blizini vodopada Plavog Nila oko mene trči odrpani dečačić i na srpskom jeziku pokušava da mi proda neki suvenir, nekome pronađe devojku, nekoga odvede do čamca –  bilo šta. Naučio je on osnovne potrebe naših radnika koji su ovde izgradili najveću hidroelektranu u Etiopiji. Njegovi vršnjaci na jugu zemlje nemaju tu sreću da trče po livadama. Oni gladuju u pustinji, kojom se kreću neka druga plemena i narodi.

Etnička raznolikost ove zemlje, sa više od osamdeset zajednica koje u njoj žive, tako je velika da je jedan italijanski antropolog s pravom nazvao “muzejom naroda”.

Decembar 2002.

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This mystical Orthodox country on the Horn of Africa is a genuine treasure of spiritual wealth and legends. One of the legends tells us, that the Queen of Sheba, (which many peoples in the region make their own) went to visit the Judean King Solomon and he liked her very much. After this visit, Menelik was born, the great grandfather of the Ethiopian dynasty, whose last emperor was Haile Selassie. This last Christian monarch offered land for free to American blacks and thus became an idol of the Rastafarian movement, Bob Marley’s reggae music and their followers. Ras Tafari was the Emperor’s Regent until he came of age, so that is how the entire movement got its name.

One of the famous emperors from the olden days was called Lalibela. In order for his people not to have to go to the Holy Land and pass through many hostile territories, he built a new Jerusalem in the North of the country. He named the churches after their originals and even a dried up brook got its name after the River Jordan. What is surprising is that the churches have been carved out of stone, sometimes even below the ground, like the most famous one – the Church of St George. Lalibela, or the ‘creation of angels’ is 800 years old and is under UNESCO’s protection today. While sweating profusely you try to undo your shoes, you wave about an acacia twig to drive away the flies, but as soon as you enter the stone churches, you forget all that and you are struck by their beauty and the dignity of the black priests in their colourful robes, holding huge Ethiopian crosses in their hands, dark sunglasses protecting them from the camera flashes.

Around Lake Tana which is the source of the Blue Nile, there are churches dating back to the 13th century, where amiable priests will show you their relics and holy books made of goatskin, made to last through centuries. Frescoes from that time depicting the lives of saints are an expression of deep rooted Orthodox Christianity in this country.

In the North of the country a small town called Aksum is to be found. In the past it used to be the centre of a mighty Aksumite dynasty and its empire, the biggest and the strongest in the period between the Persian and the Roman one, and in the Egyptian holy books it is referred to as ‘the country of gods’. Tall obelisks or steles are the remnants of this empire and one of them stood on a square in Rome until recently where Mussolini placed it after his conquest of Ethiopia. After many years, it has been returned to Aksum. Here you will also find the Queen of Sheba’s bath, the big new Church of our Lady Mary of Zion, built by Haile Selassie for the people, as well as a smaller church nearby where only its own handful of priests can enter. Supposedly the original Ten Commandments in the Arc of the Covenant are kept there, which no one has verified, nor refuted. But with faith that’s to be expected.

Near the Blue Nile waterfalls, a mucky boy runs around me, trying to sell me a souvenir in Serbian, or to find me a girlfriend, or to take me to the boat – anything. He has learnt the basic needs of our workmen who have built the largest hydroelectric power station in Ethiopia. His peers in the South of the country do not have the privilege to run across meadows. They are starving in a desert where some other people’s tribes are roaming. The ethnical diversity of this country is so great, with 80 different communities living here, that one Italian anthropologist rightly called it ‘the museum of nations’.

December 2002

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