ESTONIJA – ESTONIA – EESTI

Zimski ambijent Talina-A winter scene in Tallinn

Zimski ambijent Talina-A winter scene in Tallinn

Zidine starog grada-Old city walls of Tallinn

Zidine starog grada-Old city walls of Tallinn

Zgrada Univerziteta-University of Tartu

Zgrada Univerziteta-University of Tartu

Stari grad Talin je Uneskova baština-Old Tallinn is UNESCO Heritage site

Stari grad Talin je Uneskova baština-Old Tallinn is UNESCO Heritage site

Saborna crkva Aleksandar Nevski u Talinu-Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Tallinn

Saborna crkva Aleksandar Nevski u Talinu-Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Tallinn

Crkva Svetog Olafa u pozadini -St. Olaf's church in the background

Crkva Svetog Olafa u pozadini -St. Olaf’s church in the background

Krivi toranj u gradu Tartu-Tartu Pisa Tower

Krivi toranj u gradu Tartu-Tartu Pisa Tower

Poznati restoran u srednjevekovnom stilu-Famous restaurant in medieval style

Poznati restoran u srednjevekovnom stilu-Famous restaurant in medieval style

Tartu, glavni trg sa fontanom Studentski poljubac-The fountain Kissing Students in the Tartu's main square

Tartu, glavni trg sa fontanom Studentski poljubac-The fountain Kissing Students in the Tartu’s main square

Tartu, gradska kuca-Tartu, Town Hall

Tartu, gradska kuca-Tartu, Town Hall

Ulicni suveniri-Street souvenirs

Ulicni suveniri-Street souvenirs

Trg Rekoja sa Gradskom kucom-Rekoja Town Hall Square

Trg Rekoja sa Gradskom kucom-Rekoja Town Hall Square

Najsevernija u nizu baltičkih državica, Estonija i njen glavni grad Talin
nalaze se preko puta Finske i Helsinkija, tako da kratka brodska tura
omogućava Fincima brz prelazak i još brže napijanje. Estonci dosta podsećaju
na Fince, mada se Talin znatno razlikuje od Helsinkija i liči na ulazak u
pravu srednjovekovnu bajku. Reč je, naravno, o starom delu grada koji je
opasan zidinama i kulama i gde samo nedostaje jedna viteška družina da
laganim kasom projaše uskim uličicama ka jednoj od palata svojih gospodara.
Ipak, te družine bile su više trgovačke nego ratničke, pa stoga i ovde, kao
i u susednoj Rigi, pronalazimo bratstvo Crnoglavih, odnosno slobodnih
trgovaca čiji je pokrovitelj bio Sveti Moris, jedan od prvih hrišćanskih
mučenika, poreklom iz severne Afrike. Zanimljiva je njihova uloga i uticaj u
svojstvu nacionalne garde i vatrogasaca, do bogatog udruženja koje je bilo
stub odbrane grada, ali je i pomagalo lokalni benediktinski manastir u
zamenu za oprost grehova.
Na glavnom gradskom trgu Rekoja nalazi se gradska kuća s početka XIV veka,
čiji se arhitekta vratio odnekud sa Orijenta i tako inspirisan napravio uzak
i veoma visok toranj, nalik minaretu. Idući uličicama starog grada, nailazim
na stare krčme iz srednjeg veka, ispred kojih devojke u nošnjama iz tog
vremena nude lokalne specijalitete i kuvano vino. Na kraju uličice, koja se
naziva Vene, nalazi se benediktinski manastir, iz koga su skandinavski
sveštenici propovedali hrišćanstvo lokalnom stanovništvu, koje je među
poslednjim napustilo paganstvo. Tu se nalazi još i manastir Svete Katarine,
pa crkva Svetog Olafa, saborna crkva Aleksandar Nevski, katedrala Svetog
Petra i Pavla, kao i veliki broj manjih sakralnih objekata vrednih pažnje.
Estonci su trpeli mnoge uticaje jačih okolnih naroda: Šveđana, baltičkih
Nemaca i svakako najviše Rusa, koji su ih redovno prisvajali tokom istorije,
od Petra Velikog do Staljina. Osim njihovog čudnog jezika, koji je veoma
sličan finskom, ruski se ovde najviše čuje, a i dosta je ostalo od ruskog
mentaliteta. Nisam pronašao neki muzej posvećen ruskoj okupaciji kao u
susednim baltičkim državicama, mada sam siguran da postoji. Agresor se
doboko ukoreni u žrtvi i to često postaje neizbrisivo. Uticaj koji jedna
velika nacija ostvari na maloj zemlji ne mora imati samo negativne
konotacije kao u slučaju pribaltičkih zemalja; možda se neko i sa
nostalgijom seća njihovog prisustva. Rusi su ih sada mirno prepustili
Evropskoj zajednici, kao 1940. Hitleru. Ko zna da li će se jednog dana
pokajati.
U svakom slučaju, dah velikog suseda ovde se uvek oseća.

Decembar 2009.
______________________________________________________

The northernmost of the Baltic countries, Estonia and its capital Tallinn
are directly opposite Finland and Helsinki, so getting there quickly by a
short boat ride means getting drunk quickly for the Fins. Estonians resemble
Fins quite a lot, but Tallinn is quite different from Helsinki and entering
it you have entered a medieval fairytale. Of course I am talking about the
old city, which enclosed by ramparts and towers, is only missing a knights’
troupe to trot down the narrow alleyways towards their master’s palace.
However, these troupes were more mercantile than war fighting ones, so here,
like in the neighbouring Riga, we find the Black Heads’ Fraternity, a free
association of traders, whose patron was Saint Maurice, one of the first
Christian martyrs from North Africa. The role of the fraternity is
interesting in that they were also the National Guard and the fire-fighters,
as well as a wealthy association which represented the main pillar of the
city’s defence. They also supported the local Benedictine monastery in
return for absolution of sin.
On the main city square, Raekoja Plats, you will find the City Hall dating
back to the 14th century. Its architect must have got back from the Orient
and so inspired, built a very thin and tall tower, resembling a minaret.
Walking down the streets of the old city, I find medieval inns in front of
which girls dressed in the costume from those times offer local specials and
mulled wine. At the bottom of the street called Vene, there is a Benedictine
monastery where Scandinavian priests preached Christianity to the locals,
who were among the last to drop paganism. Here you will also find the Church
of St Catherine, the Church of St Olaf, Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, the
Cathedral of St Peter and St Paul, as well as numerous other places of
worship that deserve attention.
Estonians endured the influence of many powerful nations: the Swedes, the
Baltic Germans and of course, to the largest extent, the Russians, who
occupied them at regular intervals during history, from Peter the Great, to
Stalin. Apart from the unusual sound of the Estonian language which
resembles Finnish, Russian is heard most often around here and the Russian
mentality still lingers on. I did not find a museum portraying the Russian
occupation, like I did in neighbouring countries, but I am sure it exists.
The aggressor remains imprinted in the victim’s mind, and sometimes in an
indelible way. However, the influence of a big nation on a small one does
not always have negative connotations, such as in the case of the Baltic
countries; there may be some people who think about the Russian presence
with nostalgia. The Russians have now delivered Estonia over to the European
Union, peacefully, like they did to Hitler in 1940. God knows if they will
regret it one day.
Anyhow, the mighty Russian spirit is always felt here.

December 2009

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