BOLIVIJA – BOLIVIA

Camci od trske na jezeru Titikaka-Reed boats on Lake Titikaka

Camci od trske na jezeru Titikaka-Reed boats on Lake Titikaka

Indioska prodavnica-An Indian craft shop

Indioska prodavnica-An Indian craft shop

Ispred katedrale u La Pazu-In front of the Metropolitan Cathedral in La Paz

Ispred katedrale u La Pazu-In front of the Metropolitan Cathedral in La Paz

Kapija sunca u Tiuanaku-The Gate of the Sun in Tiwanaku

Kapija sunca u Tiuanaku-The Gate of the Sun in Tiwanaku

Meseceva dolina je prirodno umetnicko delo-The Moon Valley is nature's work of art

Meseceva dolina je prirodno umetnicko delo-The Moon Valley is nature’s work of art

Na ostrvu od trske na jezeru Titikaka-On the floating island made of totora reeds on Lake Titicaca

Na ostrvu od trske na jezeru Titikaka-On the floating island made of totora reeds on Lake Titicaca

Plaza Murillo La Paz

Plaza Murillo La Paz

President Evo Morales

President Evo Morales

Svecanost na glavnom trgu u La Pazu-A celebration at the main square Plaza Murillo in La Paz

Svecanost na glavnom trgu u La Pazu-A celebration at the main square Plaza Murillo in La Paz

Tiwanaku forum za ujedinjenu Latinsku Ameriku sa zastavom Indiosa-The Tiwanaku forum for the united Latin America with an Indian flag

Tiwanaku forum za ujedinjenu Latinsku Ameriku sa zastavom Indiosa-The Tiwanaku forum for the united Latin America with an Indian flag

Usamljena indijanka na visoravni Altiplano-A lonely Indian woman in the Altiplano high plateau

Usamljena indijanka na visoravni Altiplano-A lonely Indian woman in the Altiplano high plateau

Veliki peruanski pisac i nosilac Nobelove nagrade, Mario Vargas Ljosa, često
je pisao o likovima kakav je i sam bio šezdesetih godina prošlog veka: o
južnoameričkim revolucionarima koji su se, u egzilu ili kod kuće, borili
protiv tadašnjih vojnih diktatura u svojim zemljama. Danas više nema tih
režima, ali dolazi i nova generacija revolucionara. Oni se iskreno bore
protiv globalnog svetskog poretka, koji je ekstremno počeo da zahvata njihov
kontinent. Jedan od njih je veoma popularan – populistički predsednik
Bolivije, Evo Morales. Latinoamérica Unida sin Guerras y sin Violencia
(Ujedinjena Latinska Amerika bez ratova i nasilja), glavni je slogan
humanističhih skupova i foruma, koje vodi novi vizionar tog kontinenta.
Stigao sam u Boliviju iz Perua, preko planinskog jezera Titikaka. Crkva u
kojoj je oltar sa crnom Madonom, nalazi se na poluostrvu Kopakabana, koje
deli jezero i predstavlja najsvetije mesto u zemlji. Na jezeru je puno
plovećih ostrva, koja su jedinstvena u svetu i sastoje se od brojnih slojeva
trske koje lokalni Indiosi slažu jedan na drugi.  Oni sami borave na njima,
u kućicama od trske iz kojih se vijori dim. Veštim rukama izrađuju suvenire
posetiocima, čiji su koraci nesigurni i oprezni po mekanom tlu koje se uvija
pod njihovim nogama. U istim takvim plovilima od trske, koja oblikom
podsećaju na male vikinške brodove, oni prelaze sa jednog ostrva na drugo i
love ribu.
Narodna radinost Bolivije veoma je prepoznatljiva, kao i njihove žene u
crnim slojevitim suknjama, sa dugim i gustim  pletenicama i obaveznim
šarenim kapama ili crnim šeširima, koji ih štite od neumoljivog planinskog
sunca. Većinu stanovnika ove zemlje čine Ajmara i Kečua Indijanci, od kojih
su ovi drugi potomci starih Inka. Na visoravni Altiplano mogu se videti kako
u dugim povorkama satima pešače do obližnjeg mesta, gde će pokušati da
prodaju svoje rukotvorine. Obavezno ih prate lame i alpake, od čije se dlake
prave džemperi i šalovi, a često se pored njih slikaju sa turistima.
Užurbano se tako kreću i prema velikoj pijaci u glavnom gradu La Pazu, koji
je, na skoro četiri hiljade metara nadmorske visine, najviša prestonica na
svetu, (osim Lase na Tibetu). Administrativno glavni grad je Sukre, koji je
dobio ime po prvom predsedniku slobodne Bolivije iz 1825. godine.
La hoja de coca no es droga (List koke nije droga), piše na jednoj
rukotvorini sa te pijace, jer na toj nadmorskoj visini žvakanje lista koke i
ispijanje čaja Mate de Coca lokalnom stanovništvu, a i nama, daje snage da
se izborimo sa visinskom bolešću. Zbog teških uslova u kojima žive,
stanovnici Bolivije retko dožive pedesetu godinu i zato im je predsednik
omogućio mnogo raniji odlazak u penziju od ostalih nacija. Uživanje u
penzionerskim danima, nažalost, i pored toga, mnogi neće osetiti.
Bolivija je zanimljiva zemlja u centru Latinske Amerike, a Tiwanaku njen
duhovni centar, koji je postojao na tom tlu mnogo pre dolaska Inka. Kapija
sunca i nešto manja Kapija meseca, na drugom kraju ovog svetog mesta, samo
su ostaci monumentalnih hramova koji su nekada bili deo drevne civilizacije.
Duhovi tih vremena, preko Majke sveta Pachamama i Oca sunca Padre Sol,
nastavljaju da vode ovaj narod koji veruje u njih i dobija njihovu energiju
koja, prema verovanju, postaje nova energija sveta.

Novembar 1998.
__________________________________________________________

A great Peruvian writer and Nobel-prize winner for literature, Mario Vargas
Llosa, often depicted characters from the 1960s that resembled himself-
Latin American revolutionaries, who fought against the military
dictatorships in their countries, from home or from exile.  Today those
regimes do not exist anymore, but a new generation of revolutionaries is
coming. They are committed to the fight against globalization which is
increasingly overwhelming their continent too. One of them has a huge
support of the masses, the populist President of Bolivia – Evo Morales.
Latinoamérica Unida sin Guerras y sin Violencia (United Latin America
without war and violence) is the main slogan of the many public-spirited
conferences and forums led by this Latin American visionary.
I arrived in Bolivia from Peru across the mountainous Lake Titicaca. The
church housing the altar with a black Madonna is on the Copacabana peninsula
which splits the lake in half and is regarded as the most holy place in the
country. The lake is full of floating islands, the only ones in the world,
made by the Indios by placing layer upon layer of reed. The natives actually
live on them, in little rattan houses with smoke from home made food
hovering above them. With deft hands they make souvenirs for tourists who
feel wobbly as the soft surface beneath their feet moves and twists. They
move from island to island and fish in little vessels which are made of the
same material, somewhat resembling small Viking ships.

The handicraft in Bolivia is easily recognisable, as much as the Bolivian
women in typical black layered skirts, black braided hair and obligatory
colourful caps or black hats that protect them from the relentless mountain
sun.  The majority of Bolivia’s population is made up from Aymara and Kechua
Indios, the latter being descendants of the ancient Inca. You can see them
on Altiplano highland, walking in long lines, for hours, until they reach a
nearby town where they can sell their handicraft. They are always
accompanied by lamas and alpacas whose hair is used to make jumpers and
scarves, and tourists often take photos with them. They all hurry towards
the big market in La Paz which, at almost 4000 metres, is the highest
capital in the world (excluding Lhasa in Tibet). The administrative capital
is Sucre, named after the first president of the liberated Bolivia in 1825.

La hoja de coca no es droga (‘The coca leaf is not a drug’) is inscribed on
a handicraft sold at that market. Indeed, chewing coca leaves and drinking
Mate de Coca tea helps the tourists, as well as the locals, to fight
altitude sickness. Because of the rough living conditions, Bolivians rarely
live over 50 years of age, so their President allows them to retire at an
earlier age than most nations. Despite this, unfortunately, many will not
experience the joys of a pensioner’s life. Bolivia is an interesting country
in the heart of Latin America and Tiwanaku, which had existed there even
before the arrival of Inca, has always been its spiritual centre.  The
Gateway of the Sun and the somewhat smaller Gateway of the Moon at the other
end of this holy place, are the only remnants of the monumental shrines that
belonged to an ancient civilisation. The holy spirits from the ancient
times, the Mother of the World – Pachamama and the Father of the Sun – Padre
Sol, continue to inspire this people who are believers and draw their energy
from the spirits. According to the legend, this moving of the spirit through
people creates new energy which moves the world.

November 1998

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